To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia: Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. Burchard described how the Pope's mouth foamed like a kettle over a fire. Alexander VI openly used the church to advance his family’s fortunes, and his tenure as pope is widely seen as one of the sparks that ignited the Reformation. Raphael, Michelangelo, and Pinturicchio all worked for him, as he and his family took great pleasure in the most exquisite works of art. He encountered the allies at the Battle of Fornovo, and after a drawn fight cut his way through them and was back in France by November; Ferdinand II was reinstated at Naples soon afterwards, though with Spanish help. Pope Alexander VI is often considered the most evil man ever to hold the papal office. Pope Alexander VI (r. 1492–1503) created 43 new cardinals in 9 consistories: Juan de Borja Lanzol (Llançol) de Romaní, el mayor 31 August 1492. Attempts to whitewash Alexander’s private conduct have proved abortive. Alexander VI mediated great marriages for his children. The Tomb of Pope Alexander VII is a sculptural monument designed and partially executed by the Italian artist Gian Lorenzo Bernini.It is located in the south transept of St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican City.The piece was commissioned by Pope Alexander VII himself. Alexander VI and his son Cesare Borgia emerged as two of the most feared and hated figures in Italy during the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, leading some to believe Pope Alexander VI's cause of death was assassination. Cesare then returned to Rome, where his father wished him to assist Giuffre in reducing the last Orsini strongholds; this for some reason he was unwilling to do, much to Alexander VI's annoyance, but he eventually marched out, captured Ceri and made peace with Giulio Orsini, who surrendered Bracciano. He rarely if ever gave a thought to the poor, or to the rights of the Amer-Indians, whose lands he gave away to Spain and Portugal ("Papal Bull Inter Caetera May 4, 1493"). Quart.Review, April, 1900.] At Milan, Lodovico Sforza (il Moro) ruled, nominally as regent for the youthful duke Gian Galeazzo, but really with a view to making himself master of the state. Try Prime Hello, Sign in Account & Lists Sign in Account & Lists Orders Try Prime Basket On April 8th, 1455, shortly after being made a cardinal, Alfons … He is one of the most controversial figures in the history of papacy. In 1493, in the wake of Christopher Columbus’s epochal discoveries, and at the request of Ferdinand and Isabella, Alexander issued a bull granting Spain the exclusive right to explore the seas and claim all New World lands lying west of a north-south line 100 leagues (about 320 miles) west of the Cape Verde Islands. Then in 1492 he literally bought the papacy. Alexander's rapidly decomposing body was shuttled around Rome before a team of workers pummeled his corpse into a too-small coffin. In 1435, Pope Eugene IV had issued an attack on slavery in his papal bull Sicut Dudum, which included the excommunication of all those who engaged in the slave trade. Although ecclesiastical corruption was then at its height, his riotous mode of life called down upon him a mild reprimand from Pope Pius II (1458– 1464), who succeeded Calixtus III in 1458 On the death of Pope Innocent VIII (1484–1492), the three likely candidates for the Holy See were Cardinals Borgia, Ascanio Sforza and Giuliano della Rovere. Pope Alexander VI, the diurnal South-eastern quadrant, consisting of the 10th, 11th and 12th houses, prevails in your chart: assertion and goals achievement are at the centre of your concerns. Trouble began in 1494, however, after the death of King Ferdinand I of Naples (1423–1494; ruled 1458–94). Alexander VI's elevation did not at the time excite much alarm, and at first his reign was marked by a strict administration of justice and an orderly method of government in satisfactory contrast with the anarchy of the previous pontificate, as well as by great outward splendor. He tried to collect troops and put Rome in a state of defence, but his position was most insecure, and the Orsini offered to admit the French to their castles. Upon his assassination Lucrezia received as a third husband Alfonso I d’Este, duke of Ferrara. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. On the 28th, Charles VIII departed for Naples with Cem and Cesare, but the latter escaped to Spoleto. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. For many of his misdeeds his terrible son Cesare was responsible, but of others the pope cannot be acquitted. Rodrigo survived and by his 40s was one of the richest Cardinals in a College that contained Europe's wealthiest men. Gravely afflicted, Alexander announced a reform program and called for measures to restrain the luxury of the papal court, reorganize the Apostolic Chancery, and repress simony and concubinage. Játiva, Spain, with biography. He fathered seven children, helped his son Cesare invade Italy, poisoned his enemies, and held orgies inside the Vatican. This defection forced the Pope to come to terms, and on the 31st of December Charles VIII entered Rome with his troops and the cardinals of the French faction. The people were pleased by his election, and he began extensive building projects, working diligently at papal business. Pope Alexander VI (1431–1503). But few, if any, officially acknowledged their children. Calixtus III: The First Borgia Pope. He named his nephew, Rodrigo Borgia, cardinal in 1456. But while a crusade was talked of, the real object was central Italy, and in the autumn, Cesare, favored by France and Venice, set forth with 10,000 men to complete his interrupted enterprise. Alexander VI was an extremely intelligent man that enjoyed luxury and excess in all aspects of his life. In 1431, Lanzol y Borja born in Xàtiva, which is near Valencia in Spain. Alexander VI: The Second Borgia Pope . Alexander had shown great forbearance in dealing with the Dominican friar Girolamo Savonarola, who usurped political control in Florence in 1494, condemned the evils of the papal court, and called for the pope’s deposition, and, even before the friar’s downfall in May 1498, theologians and men of affairs had expressed support for the papacy. Pope Alexander VI. The bull authorized the conquest of barbarous nations as long as their peoples were evangelized. No doubt Cesare, who contemplated quitting the Church, was inspired by jealousy of Gandia's influence with the Pope. The Venetian ambassador reported that the Alexander VI's body was "the ugliest, most monstrous and horrible dead body that was ever seen, without any form or likeness of humanity". Popes Alexander VI-VIII are really the fifth through seventh recognized popes by that name.). Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed ), memorial page for Pope Alexander VI (1 Jan 1431–18 Aug 1503), Find a Grave Memorial no. The general political outlook in Italy was of the gloomiest, and the country was on the eve of the catastrophe of foreign invasion. in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. Peter of Candia or Peter Phillarges (c. 1339 – May 3, 1410) as Alexander V (Latin: Alexander PP. Alexander VI bought his way to the top of the Papacy and reigned as the most evil Pope in history. He offered to help Louis XII on condition that Sicily be given to Cesare, and then offered to help Spain in exchange for Siena, Pisa and Bologna. Alexander VI fathered many children by a number of mistresses, but four were legitimized: Juan, Cesare, Jofré, and Lucrezia. Alexander VI, although he could not get Savonarola into his own hands, browbeat the Florentine government into condemning the reformer to death (May 23, 1498). The local despots of Romagna were dispossessed and an administration was set up, which, if tyrannical and cruel, was at least orderly and strong, and aroused the admiration of Machiavelli. The secularization of the Church was carried to a pitch never before dreamed of, and it was clear to all Italy that he regarded the papacy as an instrument of worldly schemes with no thought of its religious aspect. You are very keen to implement your dreams and your plans. At first the papal troops were defeated and things looked black for the house of Borgia. To offer them an alternative prey, he engineered an alliance against the Ottomans with the real aim of getting the French out of Italy. He took the name of Alexander VI in honor of the ancient emperor Alexander the Great. After Alexander's death, Cesare dispatched a gang of dagger-wielding henchmen to loot the papal residence. He is one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, and his surname (Italianized as Borgia) became a byword for the debased standards of the papacy of that era. Divided the New World for Portugal, Spain. He took Borja as his sur Alexander VI appealed to Ascanio Sforza for help, and even to the Sultan. As cardinal, Rodrigo Borgia set the tone for his future papacy, participating in elaborate orgies that resembled his later pièce de résistance of sex parties, the Banquet of the Chestnuts. The Banquet of Chestnuts (or Ballet of Chestnuts) was a fête in Rome, and particularly a supper purportedly held in the Papal Palace by former Cardinal Cesare Borgia, son of Pope Alexander VI on 30 October 1501. For one, he had a bunch of children. 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